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9条建议,让你的2018年过得更健康

  • 健康9条建议,让你的2018年过得更健康纽约时报中文网2017年12月8日9条建议,让你的2018年过得更健康插图 Béatrice de Géa for The New York Times我们都应该吃得更好、经常锻炼、睡得更多。这三点建议我们听了那么多,以至于很容易被抛到九霄云外。但这些建议能变成老生常谈是有原因的:它们同时也确实能带给我们一个身心都更为健康的生活。但要从哪儿下手?让我们来帮你。以下便是《纽约时报》为了确保你在2018年身心都能处于最佳状态而给出的最佳建议——不论你对这个最佳状态是如何理解。不论你是在努力实现更好的睡眠,还是在试着建立起一个运动习惯,或是终于动手给你家的房子一个应得的深度清理,我们都有办法。彻底调整好你的睡眠习惯广告这看起来像一个很容易解决的简单问题:多睡一些。但怎么做?首先你需要了解:为什么人类需要睡眠?专家说,睡眠是新的性爱,也是成功的关键。这里有六个小建议,助你睡得香。试着骑车上班是的,骑车上班或许是一个令人望而却步的设想。但我们将传授给你路上的规矩和保证安全的最佳方法:戴头盔。学会管理压力你的身心健康都会受到压力的影响,因此,迈入新的一年,学会控制你的压力很重要。9条建议,让你的2018年过得更健康插图1 Damon Winter/The New York Times从没试过下犬式?试试吧和压力一样,瑜伽也能影响你的身心状况,不过这是一个非常积极的影响。广告干净的家,干净的生活新的一年意味着新的开始,因此,清扫每一个房间、每一个角落、每一个缝隙,给家里来一个大改造吧。看看我们的整理指南:整理衣橱,以怦然心动为标准。节省锻炼的时间锻炼无疑会占用你一天或一周之中的一大块时间,但其实不一定必须如此。克服你的负面想法来一个新年的思想挑战吧:让今年成为你平息脑海中所有不停盘旋的负面思想的一年。广告锻炼肌肉力量力量训练对你的健康目标非常重要,但要知道从何下手并非总是一件易事。我们提供了一组多快好省的锻炼法则,每天抽出几分钟,工作时也能锻炼。去跑步最近的一项研究发现,跑步的人往往能比不跑步的人多活三年,即使他们跑的很慢、偶尔跑跑,或是抽烟、喝酒、肥胖。在被研究过的运动中,没有哪种运动对寿命的影响可以和跑步相比了。快出去跑吧![......]

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    久坐易早逝,赶紧站起来(英文)

  • 久坐易早逝,赶紧站起来(英文)NICHOLAS BAKALAR2016年3月30日摘要:美国预防医学杂志的一项研究表明,久坐将提高过早死亡的风险。研究人员建议,站起来或适当的体力运动将能够抵消久坐的负面影响。Sitting too much may increase the risk of dying prematurely, while replacing sitting time with just standing or moderate physical activity could counteract the effect.Researchers used survey data from 54 countries, analyzing time spent sitting more than three hours a day along with data on population size, actuarial tables and overall deaths. The study is in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.More than 60 percent of people worldwide spend more than three hours a day sitting down, and the researchers calculated that sitting time contributed to some 433,000 deaths from 2002 through 2011.久坐易早逝,赶紧站起来(英文)插图 iStockThey estimated mean sitting time across countries at 4.7 hours a day. Reducing that time by 50 percent, they calculated, would result in a 2.3 percent decline in all-cause mortality.The association between time spent sitting and mortality has been found in other studies, and the link persists even after accounting for other physical exercise.“This is the best data we have for now,” said the lead author, Leandro Rezende, a doctoral candidate at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, “but we don’t know if it’s a causal relationship.“There are things we can do,” he continued. “Stand up, and go have a drink of water instead of keeping the water bottle at your desk. Or just stand up every so often. Standing alone increases your energy expenditure.”[......]

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    不要对脂肪敬而远之,碳水化合物才更可怕

  • 健康不要对脂肪敬而远之,碳水化合物才更可怕JANE E. BRODY2016年3月3日不要对脂肪敬而远之,碳水化合物才更可怕插图 Paul Rogers哈佛大学公共卫生学院(Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health)的营养与流行病学教授胡丙长(Frank B. Hu)博士告诉我,“对饮食建议的过度简化导致了人们对所有脂肪都存在恐惧心理,在很大程度上造成了时下很多美国人面临的营养学困境。从20世纪70年代起,越来越多来自动物和人类研究的证据表明,高饱和脂肪高胆固醇饮食是心血管疾病的重要风险因素,膳食指南呼吁人们少吃脂肪。虽然健康建议都侧重于高脂肪动物食品中的饱和脂肪,有许多人都将它们外延到了所有脂肪,并选择代之以从饼干到加糖酸奶等一系列富含碳水化合物的低脂和无脂食品。他们对2种碳水化合物——精制淀粉类和糖类的摄入量增加得尤其明显,这催生了当今肥胖和2型糖尿病的流行。专家们现在认识到,人们为了避免心脏病和中风而努力纠正既往的饮食误区,结果矫枉过正,走向了另一个错误的方向。“早期膳食指南犯的错误在于过分强调低脂肪,而不重视碳水化合物的质量,让人们误以为所有的脂肪都是坏东西,而所有的碳水化合物都有益于健康,”胡博士说。“区分有益健康的脂肪与坏脂肪,有益健康的碳水化合物与坏碳水化合物非常重要。”他解释说,高脂肪的动物性食物,如肉类和乳制品中的饱和脂肪会提高血液中的胆固醇,不利于健康,“但橄榄油很重要——它对心血管健康和控制体重都有益。”与菜籽油、鳄梨和坚果油一样,橄榄油也是单不饱和脂肪酸,虽然它像肉类和乳制品脂肪同属于高热量食品,但它不会提高血清胆固醇,也不会促进脂肪在血管内的堆积和堵塞。“我们必须摆脱恐惧脂肪的心理定势,”胡博士强调,并补充说,我们也必须放弃所有复杂的碳水化合物都有益于健康的想法。糖类是简单的碳水化合物,而淀粉是复杂的碳水化合物。但它们终将被分解为葡萄糖,作为身体的燃料存在于血液循环当中。糖类的消化速度很快,可以迅速提高血糖,而大多数淀粉需要较长的消化时间。但精制碳水化合物,如白面包和白米饭是重要的例外。用经过高度加工的谷物制成的淀粉类食物已经丧失了原来的膳食纤维,它们在人体内的消化过程反而与糖类更加接近。它们被迅速地消化和吸收,提高血糖水平,并促进人体分泌胰岛素来应对。当你的摄入量超过了身体即时消耗和能量储存的需要,精制碳水化合物和糖类可能导致胰岛素抵抗,引起脂肪肝等疾病。可惜,美国最受欢迎的蔬菜——土豆也跟糖类和精制碳水化合物差不多。它们都具有较高的升糖指数,也就是迅速提高血糖的能力。胡博士解释说,土豆由长链葡萄糖构成,很容易被口腔和胃部的酶消化,而炸薯条中的脂肪只能稍微减缓这一过程。升糖指数这一概念是1981年由戴维·詹金斯(David Jenkins)及其同事们在《美国临床营养学杂志》(The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition)上提出的,其后经过反复验证,现已被公认为是区分那些促进健康(或至少也是中性)的碳水化合物与对健康有负面影响的坏碳水化合物的一种好方法。2002年,哈佛大学公共卫生学院的教授,波士顿儿童医院(Boston Children’s Hospital)的儿科医生、内分泌学家和营养研究员戴维·S·路德维希(David S. Ludwig)博士发表了一篇关于升糖指数如何影响人体生理的全面综述,明确地阐明了升糖指数对预防和治疗肥胖症、糖尿病以及心血管疾病的重要性。要是当时美国人和他们的医生们能听从这篇综述中的劝告,很有可能我们就可以避免陷入当前的这种困境。升糖指数可以通过比对标准剂量的碳水化合物与参比食物对葡萄糖的应答而得出,其中参比食物可以是纯葡萄糖(升糖指数为100)或白面包(71)。高升糖指数的食物包括烤土豆(111)、白法式长棍(95)、玉米片(93)、白米饭(89)、咸脆饼干(83)、即食燕麦片(83)、米饼(82)、佳得乐(78)和炸薯条(75)等,它们提升血糖水平的能力都超过了普通的白面包,最好不要经常食用,并注意只能少量食用。而低升糖指数食物,包括燕麦片(55)、意大利面(细面为46,宽面为32)、苹果(39)、胡萝卜(35)、脱脂牛奶(32)、黑豆(30)、小扁豆(29)、西梅(29)、大麦(28)、鹰嘴豆(10)、葡萄柚(25)、花生(7)和鹰嘴豆泥(6)等对血糖的影响较小,而西兰花等绿色蔬菜对血糖的影响非常小,以至于无法测定。升糖指数与另一个概念密切相关,那就是升醣负荷。升糖指数衡量的是某一特定食物提升血糖的快慢,而升醣负荷还考虑到了份量因素。比如,西瓜虽然升糖指数很高,但它的升糖负荷较低,因为这种水果的绝大部分成分是水。对于试图控制体重的人来说,高升糖食物尤其是大麻烦。它们可能导致胰岛素大量释放以降低血糖,但胰岛素一旦释放过量,就会让人很快就重新感到饥饿。相反,低升糖食物就不会造成这种问题。至于那些富含健康脂肪的食物,如花生或鳄梨,其实倒可以延缓人再次饥饿的速度——不过,如果摄入过量,热量也会迅速增加。路德维希博士在2002年写道:“近年来,由于美国人对碳水化合物摄入的增加和食品加工技术的改变,人们日常饮食的升糖指数和升糖负荷都有所上升。”在其后的十年里,这种模式仍然持续着,并在很大程度上导致了所有年龄段的美国人中超重和肥胖的增加。此外,长期以高升糖效应的食物为主食可引发胰岛素抵抗(这也是2型糖尿病的标志),而且,血液中过量的游离脂肪酸还会导致脂肪肝等疾病。近年来这两种疾病的患病率均有所上升,而且,它们都可能导致慢性炎症,继而诱发心血管疾病。胡博士说,他从小在中国长大,在他的童年时代,大多数人都经常从事体力活动,从而能够应对大量食用白米饭造成的升糖负荷。“然而,现在的中国人越来越爱久坐不动,却仍在食用大量白米饭,肥胖和糖尿病都呈上升趋势,”他说。[......]

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    无症状感染者能传播新型冠状病毒吗?

  • 无症状感染者能传播新型冠状病毒吗?RONI CARYN RABIN2020年2月5日周一,在中国武汉冠状病毒隔离区,医生在查看一张肺部扫描。周一,在中国武汉冠状病毒隔离区,医生在查看一张肺部扫描。 Agence France-Presse — Getty Images[欢迎点击此处、或发送邮件至cn.letters@nytimes.com订阅《纽约时报》中文简报。]感染了武汉冠状病毒的人即使没有症状也能传播给其他人吗?这是科学家面临的最重要问题之一。如果没有症状的人也可以传播,那么减慢其传播速度将变得极其困难。中国的医生声称无症状传播是有可能的,1月30日发表在《新英格兰医学杂志》(New England Journal of Medicine)上的信似乎支持了他们的说法。广告在信中,科学家描述了德国的一系列感染病例,这些感染始于一名来自上海的旅行者。研究人员报告说,这位旅行者在访问巴伐利亚的四天中看上去是健康的,直到登上返回中国的航班才开始感到不适。该报告加剧了全球科学家的焦虑,他们说,这一发现表明遏制武汉冠状病毒几乎是不可能的。但是现在德国的卫生官员已对该报告的准确性提出质疑。总部位于柏林的德国公共卫生研究所罗伯特·科赫研究所(Robert Koch Institute)的发言人玛丽珂·德根(Marieke Degen)说,该旅行者在德国的时候就“有轻微的症状”。据巴伐利亚州卫生当局和该研究所的科学家称,这名女子的症状,包括背疼,一直不明显,并且服用了退烧药物。退烧药不仅用于缓解发烧,还有止痛和消炎的作用。德根说,卫生官员上周向欧洲疾病预防和控制中心(European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control)的预警和应急系统(Early Warning and Response System)报告了他们的发现。他们的驳斥由《科学》(Science)杂志首次报道。无论该期刊报告中的准确性如何,许多专家仍对无症状个体传播冠状病毒的可能性感到担忧,这在很大程度上源于他们从中国同行那里获得的零星信息。广告“该文可能存在缺陷,也可能没有——这需要进一步调查,”美国国家过敏和传染病研究所(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)所长安东尼·法奥奇(Anthony Fauci)博士说。“但是我不认为足以否定这个推测。”法奥奇说:“我们一直在从中国非常可靠的人那里获得报告——这些人是我们认识多年的科学家、调查员和公共卫生人员——他们一直在告诉我们,‘有无症状病例,这是肯定的,而且我们见到了无症状传播’。”他还说,无症状传播不太可能在中国国内推动疫情,但“它使我们的工作复杂化”。世界卫生组织的玛丽亚·范·科霍夫博士说,即使无症状患者在传播冠状病毒,绝大多数的感染仍将来自有症状患者。世界卫生组织的玛丽亚·范·科霍夫博士说,即使无症状患者在传播冠状病毒,绝大多数的感染仍将来自有症状患者。 Denis Balibouse/Reuters波士顿的哈佛大学陈曾熙公共卫生学院(Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health)流行病学教授马克·利普西奇(Marc Lipsitch)说,如果患者的早期症状包括背痛等常见症状,那么受感染者及其医生就不太可能考虑感染冠状病毒的可能性。“从业务角度来看,这几乎和她没有任何症状是一样的,”利普西奇说。“头痛很常见,冠状病毒不是其主要原因,而且无法被第三方观察到。”他补充说,如果第一个症状很常见,而且不明确,“那么,确定谁具有传染性的公共卫生挑战,就和真的无症状传播一样大。”广告世界卫生组织负责新发疾病代行主管玛莉亚·范·科霍夫(Maria Van Kerkhove)周二说,世卫组织已经注意到,一些人可能在症状出现前或感染后不久就传播了武汉冠状病毒。但其他疾病的经验表明,许多被认为没有症状的人实际上出现了症状。“可能一些没有症状的人会传播病毒,但我们需要更详细的研究来确定这种情况发生的频率,以及它是否会导致二次传播,”范·科霍夫说。然而,专家说,无论这些问题的答案是什么,大多数病毒性呼吸道感染是通过有症状的病人的咳嗽和喷嚏传播的。处于争议中心的这封信描述了一名健康的33岁德国商人,他在1月24日出现了喉咙痛、寒颤和肌肉酸痛,第二天体温升至39度,并伴有咳嗽。他患病前曾于1月20日和21日在慕尼黑与一位中国商业伙伴会面,后者是上海居民,从1月19日到1月22日一直在德国。报道称,她在德国期间身体健康,但在返回中国的航班上发病。1月26日,她被检测出感染了武汉冠状病毒。广告中国当局通知了德国卫生官员,那名商人的检测呈阳性。1月28日,这家德国公司另外三名员工的冠状病毒检测都呈阳性。其中两人与那名来自上海的女子没有任何接触。所有的感染者都被送往医院接受隔离和监控。他们的病情都较轻微。该报告的作者、慕尼黑和柏林的研究人员表示,“值得注意的是,感染似乎是在病毒潜伏期传播的。”那名女性只是患上短暂的轻症疾病,后来就康复了。研究报告的作者之一迈克尔·赫尔舍(Michael Hoelscher)博士告诉《科学》杂志,他和同事们没有采访过那名患病的中国女性,他们的依据是她的德国同事的描述,后者说她似乎没有任何症状。记者未能联系到赫尔舍置评。德根说,来自罗伯特·科赫研究所(Robert Koch Institute)和巴伐利亚健康与食品安全局(Health and Food Safety Authority of Bavaria)的研究人员则对这名女子进行了电话采访,由此得知她可能有症状。《新英格兰医学杂志》发言人朱莉娅·莫林(Julia Morin)说:“我们现在只能说,我们正在调查此事。”[......]

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    Marvin Lewis will 'walk away' if Bengals win Super Bowl

  • Night net null Bengals coach Marvin Lewis is confident in his team, and he said as much Tuesday at the team's Weenie Roast And Mock Turtle Soupfest.At the event, Lewis said he'll call it quits if he wins the Super Bowl. He reportedly had a d夜网论坛ream that involved winning the big game, team owner Mike Brown, a trophy presentation and then a walk into the sunset. MORE: Predictions for AFC North | WARNER: Key to securing a roster spot in training camp “I want to hand Mike the trophy, then just walk away," he said, via the Cincinnati Enquirer. He didn't guarantee his dream would become a reality this season, but he did say it's a real possibility.“We’re good enough, but we have to play good enough," Lewis said.You can't fault the coach for believing in his team.While Cincinnati does have a talented roster, recent history doesn't bode well for the franchise. Lewis, who has been the team's coach since 2003, is 0-6 in the postseason. He might need to make something happen if he wants that walk into the sunset to be his choice.[......]

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    Odell Beckham Jr. autograph session turns chaotic at Giants training camp

  • Night net Giants wide receiver Odell Beckham Jr. has quickly become a star thanks to his consistent greatness and ridiculous catches. Unfortunately, that was the problem at Giants camp on Friday.Fans of OBJ turned violent when making a push to get his autograph, even stepping over a woman who had a seizure. Newsday Sports' Tom Rock chronicled the chaos in a series of tweets. MORE: Ranking Night net's top receivers | Photos emerge of Jason Pierre-Paul after fireworks夜网论坛 incidentBarricades and fences heaving with fans trying to get an autograph.— Tom Rock (@TomRock_Newsday) July 31, 2015At one point a woman had a seizure and lay on the ground. Fans were stepping over her to try to get an autograph.— Tom Rock (@TomRock_Newsday) July 31, 2015One young girl in a body brace was being pushed against the fence , her father screaming for people to stop pushing her and her broken back.— Tom Rock (@TomRock_Newsday) July 31, 2015About 45 minutes in, the aluminum bleachers where fans were standing buckled.— Tom Rock (@TomRock_Newsday) July 31, 2015The bleachers didn't collapse, but the floor buckled with a loud pop. It seemed like everyone was removed safely.— Tom Rock (@TomRock_Newsday) July 31, 2015You can see how this kind of craziness could happen with so many fans vying for the autograph of one man. Yes, Odell Beckham Jr is also signing & signing & signing.... pic.twitter.com/inRjzKOSus— Kimberly Jones (@KimJonesSports) July 31, 2015Victor Cruz and Odell Beckham Jr pic.twitter.com/84EtI88ZyY— Andrew Scozzari (@andrewscozzari) July 31, 2015Please fans, be patient. It's not worth hurting others just to get someone's name in cursive on your football.[......]

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    Junior Galette charged with three traffic violations

  • Night net null The legal troubles just keep coming for Junior Galette.The former Saints outside linebacker was pulled over in Louisiana on July 7 and issued three traffic citations, TMZ Sports reported. MORE: NFC South camp battles | Saints' salary cap mess needs to be explained During the stop, police saw that Galette was driving on a suspended license and that he didn't have the proper tags for his Mercedes. Galette was also cited for having an expired license. His hearing is set fo夜网论坛r Aug. 10, the same day he is due in court for a civil case brought by the woman who accused Galette of domestic assault in January.The criminal charges were dropped in February, but the Saints still released him and later admitted it was a mistake to sign Galette to a contract extension last year.[......]

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    Tom Coughlin sheds light on conversation with Jason Pierre-Paul

  • Night net null Tom Coughlin spoke with Jason Pierre-Paul, their first conversation since the Pro Bowl defensive end lost a finger in a July 4 fireworks mishap.“I did talk to him late yesterday afternoon,” Coughlin told reporters (via Night net.com) Saturday after practice. “Everybody has had a good conversation with him, and mine was the same. Do I know any more than I did before? No. Do I know when he’s coming? He’s looking forward to coming, he’s anxious to be here, but he’s not going to come until he feels like he’s ready to be able to play. MORE: 2015 Hall of Fame class | Denzel talks to Cowboys"It could be whatever amount of time, I’m not even going to speculate. I was glad to hear his voice. He sounded good, he sounded interested in wanting to get back here. His baby and his fiancé are doing well. He wishes he was here, too. So we’ll see.” Pierre-Paul still hasn’t signed his franchise tender夜网论坛 for just under $15 million. According to ESPN, once the two sides figure out how much to pay Pierre-Paul factoring in his injury, he’ll sign and then report to camp.[......]

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    Eagles' Mychal Kendricks: 'Too many people' say I look like Drake

  • Night net null Eagles linebacker Mychal Kendricks recently spoke with TMZ about the Drake and Meek Mill rap feud.Kendricks is obviously familiar with Philadelphia, which is also the home of Meek. He says Meek “definitely runs Philly” and that Drake could have some trouble if he ever comes to the city. It was also pointed out how much Kendricks resembles the Canadian rapper. MORE: Drake's kickball skills are not terrible | Kentucky sends Drake cease and desist letterWhen he was asked if people ever tell him he looks like Drake, Kendricks responded by saying, "Too many people." That's when he delved into the rap beef."The last time I went to a Meek Mill concert and a Drake concert, they were both there. Both times. So they had love for each other. They were mad cool with 夜网论坛each other. I don't know what's going on right now," he said.Kendricks' comments were made before Meek Mill released his comeback track, "Wanna Know."[......]

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    Night net, CFL partner on concussion testing for players in Canada

  • Night net CFL null The Night net is partnering with the CFL's BC Lions, Edmonton Eskimos, Calgary Stampeders and Winnipeg Blue Bombers on implementing additional concussion tests during CFL games and practices this season, the leagues announced Thursday.Under the joint program, in addition to ongoing education, research and medical response protocols already in place in the CFL, medical staffs of various CFL teams started using the King-Devick Test in training camps this summer and will continue throughout the 2015 season. MORE: Night net players who played in the CFL 夜网论坛| Derailed by concussions, Collie scores in CFL debutThe K-D Test is a sideline concussion screening examination based on eye-movement that is being used in regular-season CFL games in addition to the established sideline concussion examination. During a K-D Test sideline exam, a player suspected of having suffered head trauma reads single-digit numbers displayed on cards or on a tablet computer to test eye movement. The player's response time is then compared to his preseason baseline time.The K-D Test, in addition to a full medical evaluation, will help diagnose a concussion that subsequently would remove a player from play, the leagues said. The Night net will contribute funding to help determine whether the K-D Test, a two-minute exam, improves the ability to diagnose concussions.[......]

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